For normal day-to-day activities, there is no impact on heart or lung function. Most children will have a lung capacity slightly below average but still within what is considered the normal range. However, the ability of the heart to pump effectively during strenuous exercise may not be normal. Several medical studies have indicated that the sternum may press on the heart enough that the heart cannot fill with blood and pump it out as rapidly as with a normal chest. These same studies demonstrate that the pumping ability of the heart is improved following surgical repair of pectus excavatum/Carinatum. However, there generally is no change in lung capacity following repair.